icommunity blockchain

Redes distribuidas VS centralizadas7 min read

En el siguiente artículo repasaremos los diferentes tipos de redes analizando cada caso y especificando los pros y contras de cada una.

Las redes de datos centralizadas son aquellas que mantienen todos los datos en una sola computadora y ubicación. Para acceder a la información se debe acceder a la computadora principal del sistema, conocida como «servidor».

Por otro lado, una red de datos distribuidos funciona como una única red lógica de datos, instalada en una serie de computadoras (nodos) ubicadas en diferentes situaciones geográficas y que no están conectadas a una sola unidad de procesamiento, sino que están completamente conectadas entre sí para proporcionar integridad y accesibilidad a la información desde cualquier punto. En este sistema todos los nodos contienen información y todos los clientes del sistema están en igualdad de condiciones. De esta forma, las redes de datos distribuidos pueden realizar un procesamiento autónomo. El claro ejemplo es blockchain, pero existen otros como Spanner, una base de datos distribuida creada por Google.

VENTAJAS Y DESVENTAJAS DE LAS REDES DE DATOS CENTRALIZADAS, DESCENTRALIZADAS Y DISTRIBUIDAS.

 

Las redes centralizadas y distribuidas tienen diferentes características y también diferentes ventajas y desventajas. Por ejemplo, las redes centralizadas son las más fáciles de mantener ya que solo tienen un punto de falla, este no es el caso de las distribuidas, que en teoría son más difíciles de mantener.

Pero este a su vez es su principal inconveniente: los centralizados son muy inestables, ya que cualquier problema que afecte al servidor central puede generar caos en todo el sistema. Sin embargo, los distribuidos son más estables, al almacenar la totalidad de la información del sistema en una gran cantidad de nodos que mantienen iguales condiciones entre sí.

Esta misma característica es la que otorga a las redes distribuidas un mayor nivel de seguridad, ya que para llevar a cabo ataques maliciosos habría que atacar a una gran cantidad de nodos al mismo tiempo. Como la información se distribuye entre los nodos de la red: en este caso si se realiza un cambio legítimo se verá reflejado en el resto de nodos del sistema que aceptarán y verificarán la nueva información; pero si se realiza algún cambio ilegítimo, el resto de nodos podrán detectarlo y no validarán esta información. Este consenso entre nodos protege la red de ataques deliberados o cambios accidentales de información.

In addition, distributed systems have an advantage over centralized systems in terms of network speed, since as the information is not stored in a central location, a bottleneck is less likely, in which the number of people Attempting to access a server is larger than it can support, causing waiting times and slowing down the system.

Also, centralized systems tend to present scalability problems since the capacity of the server is limited and can not support infinite traffic. Distributed systems have greater scalability, due to the large number of nodes that support the network.

Finally, in a distributed network the extraction of any of the nodes would not disconnect from the network to any other. All the nodes are connected to each other without necessarily having to pass through one or several local centers. In this type of networks the center / periphery division disappears and therefore the filter power over the information that flows through it, which makes it a practical and efficient system.

SPECIFIC ADVANTAGES OF BLOCKCHAIN

There are other types of distributed data networks besides the blockchain. In fact, the consensus and the immutability of the data are not unique characteristics of the blockchain, since there are other distributed data networks that also have these characteristics, such as: Paxos, Raft, Googlge HDFS, Zebra, CouchDB, Datomic, among other.

But there are two characteristics that really differentiate the blockchain from the rest of the data networks: the access control for writing and reading data is truly decentralized, unlike other distributed data networks where it is logically centralized, and the ability to secure transactions no need for trusted third parties in a competitive environment.

The blockchain has unique characteristics over the rest of the available data networks. However, this does not mean that for all possible cases of data storage the best option is always to use the blockchain, since this really depends on the needs and requirements of a company or organization when using a database. data. But if you are looking for a storage configuration in which data is easily available, lowering operating costs by distributing them among the nodes that operate the system, where you would never have to modify the past data and would like to have a permanent record of them. , and if the data must be immutable and of totally public access, then the answer is the blockchain.

COMPARATIVE SUMMARY

  • Security:
    • CENTRALIZED: If someone has access to the server with the information, any data can be added, modified and deleted.
      DISTRIBUTED: All data is distributed between the nodes of the network. If something is added, edited or deleted in any computer, it will be reflected in all the computers in the network. If some legal amendments are accepted, new information will be disseminated among other users throughout the network. Otherwise, the data will be copied to match the other nodes. Therefore, the system is self-sufficient and self-regulating. The databases are protected against deliberate attacks or accidental changes of information.
  • Availability:
    • CENTRALIZED: If there are several requests, the server can break down and no longer respond.
      DISTRIBUTED: Can withstand significant pressure on the network. All the nodes in the network have the data. Then, the requests are distributed among the nodes. Therefore, the pressure does not fall on a computer, but on the entire network. In this case, the total availability of the network is much greater than in the centralized one.
  • Accessibility:
    • CENTRALIZED: If the central storage has problems, you will not be able to obtain your information unless the problems are solved. In addition, different users have different needs, but the processes are standardized and can be inconvenient for customers.
      DISTRIBUTED: Given that the number of computers in the distributed network is large, DDoS attacks are possible only in case their capacity is much greater than that of the network. But that would be a very expensive attack. In a centralized model, the response time is very similar in this case. Therefore, it can be considered that distributed networks are secure.
  • Data transfer rates:
    • CENTRALIZED: If the nodes are located in different countries or continents, the connection with the server can become a problem.
      DISTRIBUTED: In distributed networks, the client can choose the node and work with all the required information.
  • Escalabilidad:
    • CENTRALIZED: Centralized networks are difficult to scale because the capacity of the server is limited and the traffic can not be infinite. In a centralized model, all clients are connected to the server. Only the server stores all the data. Therefore, all requests to receive, change, add or delete data go through the main computer. But server resources are finite. As a result, he is able to carry out his work effectively only for the specific number of participants. If the number of clients is greater, the server load may exceed the limit during the peak time.
      DISTRIBUTED: Distributed models do not have this problem since the load is shared among several computers.

 

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2023-02-08T15:52:31+01:007 de enero de 2019|Web3|
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